How do I? Compute the small business health insurance credit
Under the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA), small employers can claim a credit for providing health insurance for employees and their families. Health insurance includes not only basic medical and hospital care, but dental or vision, long-term care, and coverage for specific diseases or illness. Self-funded plans do not qualify; the insurance must be provided through a third party.
For 2010-2013, for-profit employers can claim a credit of 35 percent of the employer's nonelective contributions, increasing to 50 percent for 2014 and 2015. Nonprofit employers can claim a credit of 25 percent through 2013, and 35 percent for the two succeeding years. Beginning in 2012, the credit for nonprofit employers is limited to the payroll taxes paid by the employer.
Employers can claim the full credit if their full-time equivalent (FTE) employees are 10 or less, and their average annual wages per employee are $25,000 or less. FTEs are determined by figuring total hours of service for all employees and dividing the total by 2,080.
The credit is phased out for employers with 11 to 25 employees or with average wages between $25,000 and $50,000. The credit percentage is reduced 6.67 percent per "excess" employee (over 10) and four percent for each $1,000 of average wages in excess of $25,000.
To determine the amount of the credit, employers must add up the total premiums they paid on behalf of their employees during the year, subject to the state average premium limit. This total is then multiplied by the applicable percentage (25 or 35 percent for 2013, minus any phase-out). The credit is then reduced for FTEs in excess of 10, and for average annual wages (in units of $1,000) over $25,000. The result is the total credit that the employer can claim.
Under current law, employers must pay at least 50 percent of the insurance costs and must pay a uniform percentage for all employees. The credit is reduced if the employer premiums exceed the state's average premium for small group markets.
In its proposed fiscal year 2014 budget, the Obama administration would modify or eliminate some of these requirements. The credit phase-out would apply to employers with 21-50 employees, rather than 11-25. The phase-out rate would also be more gradual. Furthermore, the administration would eliminate the requirement that employers make a uniform contribution for each employee, and would eliminate the limit for state average premiums.
Reports indicate that the small business health insurance credit is being underutilized, with many businesses leaving this tax money on the table without claiming it or arranging their affairs to do so.
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