The U.S. Supreme Court’s decision in June to strike down Section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) (E.S. Windsor, 2013-2 ustc ¶50,400) generated many questions about federal taxes and same-sex couples. The IRS has responded with a general rule recognizing same-sex marriages nationwide. The agency also promised that more guidance will be released before the start of the 2014 filing season.
Place of celebration approach
Section 3 of DOMA prevented the IRS (and all federal agencies) from recognizing same-sex married couples as married. After the Supreme Court struck down Section 3 of DOMA, the IRS had an important decision to make. The IRS could recognize all same-sex marriages regardless of where the couple resided. Alternatively, the IRS could only recognize the marriages of couples who reside in states that recognize same-sex marriage.
The IRS chose the first approach, which is known as “place of celebration” approach. All legally married same-sex couples will be treated as married for all federal tax purposes, including income and gift and estate taxes, regardless of whether a couple resides in a jurisdiction that recognizes same-sex marriage or in a jurisdiction that does not recognize same-sex marriage. This means that a couple who marry in a state (or other jurisdiction) that recognizes same-sex marriage and subsequently move to a state that does not recognize same-sex marriage will continue to be treated as married for all federal tax purposes.
The IRS had an important historical precedent that lead to its choosing place of celebration over place of residence. The IRS has taken a place of celebration approach to common law marriages for over 50 years.
For 2013 returns filed in 2014, legally married same-sex couples must file as married filing jointly or married filing separately. The rules for 2012 and prior years are not as simple.
The IRS imposed a deadline of September 16, 2013 for married same-sex couples, who had yet to file an original return for 2012, to file as single or as married. For 2011 and earlier, same-sex spouses who filed their tax returns timely may choose (but are not required) to amend their federal tax return filing status. They may amend their prior-year returns using either married filing separately or jointly filing status, provided the period of limitations for amending the return has not expired. If you have any questions about filing an amended return, please contact our office.
Because of DOMA, taxpayers may have paid taxes on the fair market value of employer-provided health care coverage for their same-sex spouse. The IRS will allow the employee to file an amended return for open tax years reflecting his or her status as a married individual to recover federal income tax paid on the value of health coverage of the employee’s spouse. The IRS also instructed certain sponsors of some employee benefit plans to treat same-sex spouses as spouses.
The IRS has provided two optional alternative special administrative procedures for employers to use to correct overpayments of employment taxes. Under the first alternative, employers may use the fourth quarter 2013 Form 941, Employer’s Quarterly Federal Tax Return, to correct these overpayments of employment taxes for the first three quarters of 2013. Under the second alternative, employers may file one Form 941-X, Adjusted Employer’s Quarterly Federal Tax Return or Claim for Refund, for the fourth quarter of 2013 to correct these overpayments of FICA taxes for all quarters of 2013. Please contact our office for more details about these optional procedures.
There is one very important distinction that the IRS has made in its guidance for same-sex couples. The IRS is not recognizing registered domestic partners, individuals in a civil union, or similar relationships as married. Registered domestic partners may not file as married filing jointly or married filing separately because the individuals are not married or spouses for federal tax purposes
The IRS will likely begin accepting 2013 returns for processing in mid- to late January 2014. Some same-sex couples may find their filing more complicated despite the demise of DOMA. States that do not recognize same-sex marriage will presumably not allow these couples to file their state returns (if required) as married. The IRS is also expected to issue more guidance on particular areas of the tax law, such as estate and gift taxes, retirement plans and more. Our office will keep you posted of developments.
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